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教師解讀劍八雅思閱讀真題
2020.2.3

文章来源:由「百度新聞」平台非商業用途取用"http://ielts.xdf.cn/201207/7002236.html"

  下面新東方網雅思頻道為大家整理了教師為大家解讀的劍橋雅思8真題的相關內容,對這篇劍橋雅思8閱讀真題的相關內容介紹,備考重點詞匯和題型的解析都十分的詳細,大家可以在自己的雅思閱讀備考當中對此加以適當的練習。  TEST1  READINGPASSAGE1  Youshouldspendabout20minutesonQuestions1-13,whicharebasedonReadingPassage1below.  AChronicleofTimekeeping  Ourconceptionoftimedependsonthewaywemeasureit  AAccordingtoarchaeologicalevidence,atleast5,000yearsago,andlongbeforetheadventoftheRomanEmpire,theBabyloniansbegantomeasuretime,introducingcalendarstoco-ordinatecommunalactivities,toplantheshipmentofgoodsand,inparticular,toregulateplantingandharvesting.Theybasedtheircalendarsonthreenaturalcycles:thesolarday,markedbythesuccessiveperiodsoflightanddarknessastheearthrotatesonitsaxis;thelunarmonth,followingthephasesofthemoonasitorbitstheearth;andthesolaryear,definedbythechangingseasonsthataccompanyourplanetsrevolutionaroundthesun.  BBeforetheinventionofartificiallight,themoonhadgreatersocialimpact.And,forthoselivingneartheequatorinparticular,itswaxingandwaningwasmoreconspicuousthanthepassingoftheseasons.Hence,thecalendarsthatweredevelopedatthelowerlatitudeswereinfluencedmorebythelunarcyclethanbythesolaryear.Inmorenorthernclimes,however,whereseasonalagriculturewaspractised,thesolaryearbecamemorecrucial.AstheRomanEmpireexpandednorthward,itorganiseditsactivitychartforthemostpartaroundthesolaryear.  CCenturiesbeforetheRomanEmpire,theEgyptianshadformulatedamunicipalcalendarhaving12monthsof30days,withfivedaysaddedtoapproximatethesolaryear.Eachperiodoftendayswasmarkedbytheappearanceofspecialgroupsofstarscalleddecans.AttheriseofthestarSiriusjustbeforesunrise,whichoccurredaroundtheall-importantannualfloodingoftheNile,12decanscouldbeseenspanningtheheavens.ThecosmicsignificancetheEgyptiansplacedinthe12decansledthemtodevelopasysteminwhicheachintervalofdarkness(andlater,eachintervalofdaylight)wasdividedintoadozenequalparts.Theseperiodsbecameknownastemporalhoursbecausetheirdurationvariedaccordingtothechanginglengthofdaysandnightswiththepassingoftheseasons.Summerhourswerelong,winteronesshort;onlyatthespringandautumnequinoxeswerethehoursofdaylightanddarknessequal.Temporalhours,whichwerefirstadoptedbytheGreeksandthentheRomans,whodisseminatedthemthroughEurope,remainedinuseformorethan2,500years.  DInordertotracktemporalhoursduringtheday,inventorscreatedsundials,whichindicatetimebythelengthordirectionofthesunsshadow.Thesundialscounterpart,thewaterclock,wasdesignedtomeasuretemporalhoursatnight.Oneofthefirstwaterclockswasabasinwithasmallholenearthebottomthroughwhichthewaterdrippedout.Thefallingwaterleveldenotedthepassinghourasitdippedbelowhourlinesinscribedontheinnersurface.AlthoughthesedevicesperformedsatisfactorilyaroundtheMediterranean,theycouldnotalwaysbedependedoninthecloudyandoftenfreezingweatherofnorthernEurope.  ETheadventofthemechanicalclockmeantthatalthoughitcouldbeadjustedtomaintaintemporalhours,itwasnaturallysuitedtokeepingequalones.Withthese,however,arosethequestionofwhentobegincounting,andso,intheearly14thcentury,anumberofsystemsevolved.Theschemesthatdividedthedayinto24equalpartsvariedaccordingtothestartofthecount:Italianhoursbeganatsunset,Babylonianhoursatsunrise,astronomicalhoursatmiddayandgreatclockhours,usedforsomelargepublicclocksinGermany,atmidnight.Eventuallytheseweresupersededbysmallclock,orFrench,hours,whichsplitthedayintotwo12-hourperiodscommencingatmidnight.  FTheearliestrecordedweight-drivenmechanicalclockwasbuiltin1283inBedfordshireinEngland.Therevolutionaryaspectofthisnewtimekeeperwasneitherthedescendingweightthatprovideditsmotiveforcenorthegearwheels(whichhadbeenaroundforatleast1,300years)thattransferredthepower;itwasthepartcalledtheescapement.Intheearly1400scametheinventionofthecoiledspringorfuseewhichmaintainedconstantforcetothegearwheelsofthetimekeeperdespitethechangingtensionofitsmainspring.Bythe16thcentury,apendulumclockhadbeendevised,butthependulumswunginalargearcandthuswasnotveryefficient.  GToaddressthis,avariationontheoriginalescapementwasinventedin1670,inEngland.Itwascalledtheanchorescapement,whichwasalever-baseddeviceshapedlikeashipsanchor.Themotionofapendulumrocksthisdevicesothatitcatchesandthenreleaseseachtoothoftheescapewheel,inturnallowingittoturnapreciseamount.Unliketheoriginalformusedinearlypendulumclocks,theanchorescapementpermittedthependulumtotravelinaverysmallarc.Moreover,thisinventionallowedtheuseofalongpendulumwhichcouldbeatonceasecondandthusledtothedevelopmentofanewfloor-standingcasedesign,whichbecameknownasthegrandfatherclock.  HToday,highlyaccuratetimekeepinginstrumentssetthebeatformostelectronicdevices.Nearlyallcomputerscontainaquartz-crystalclocktoregulatetheiroperation.Moreover,notonlydotimesignalsbeameddownfromGlobalPositioningSystemsatellitescalibratethefunctionsofprecisionnavigationequipment,theydosoaswellformobilephones,instantstock-tradingsystemsandnationwidepower-distributiongrids.Sointegralhavethesetime-basedtechnologiesbecometoday-to-dayexistencethatourdependencyonthemisrecognisedonlywhentheyfailtowork.

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